ntl home
home | at home  | business
ecommerce
ntl virtual web hosting
product options
comparisons
our networks
other internet products
terms & conditions
user policy

 

 

ntl virtual web hosting
glossary
 
buy ntl virtual hosting help
In this section we have put together some of the common and not so common terms and terminology used on the Internet. Here at ntl we believe in making things as easy to use as possible. This glossary will help to de-mystify the jargon used on the Internet.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
A

Access Provider

This is another term for an ISP or Internet Provider. It might be a provider that has its own POP (Point of Presence) on the Internet, or it may be a company that has a telecommunication link to someone else with a POP.

This is roughly the equivalent to the Applet from Java. It allows a self-sufficient programme to be run within a Windows or Macintosh network, which will perform simple tasks.

Adapter

This is a physical device that is attached to a piece of computer hardware or electronic interface. It allows this piece of hardware or electronic interface to accommodate another piece of hardware or electronic interface.

Applet

An Applet is a little programme that can be sent with a web page to a user of the web page. They are Java programmes that can perform interactive animations, immediate calculations, or simple tasks. This is done without the user generating a request to the server, so the action is performed more quickly.

ARPANet

This is the acronym for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. This network was the forerunner of the Internet. It was developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the U.S. Government, as an experiment in transferring information via a network rather than holding duplicate information in several places.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Technology. This is the standard world-wide code used by computers to represent all the upper and lower case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. Each code is represented by a 7 digit binary number e.g. 0000000, and there are 128 standard ASCII codes.

back to top
 
B

Bandwidth

This is a representation of the amount of information that can be passed along a network. The amount of bandwidth will bear a relationship on the speed at which the information can be sent along the network as well as the amount of information sent. The larger the file being transferred, the more space it will take and so it may be sent more slowly. This is because there are usually no priorities over which bit of information will be transferred, so everything tries to be sent together. It is a bit like rush hour traffic trying to get into a city. The more traffic on the road the slower it all moves. Network Traffic is a common cry when information is being transmitted slowly!

Banner

A banner can either be used to announce your own Company or personal name or identity across your website, or it can be an advertising image, that invites the user to download it to view another product.

Baud

This term is used in describing how fast a modem is. The baud rate is the number of 'bits' the modem can send or receive per second.

B-channel

In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) the B-channel is the bearer channel. It is the channel that carries the main data. This can be in the form of data, digital voice, fax etc. Usually in a leased ISDN line there will be 2 B (bearer) channels and 1 D (delta) channel. The D channel usually carries control and signalling information. The usual ISDN line will be 2 x 64 Kbps B channels and 1 x 16 Kbps D channel.

Bit

This stands for Binary digIT. This is the smallest unit of computerised data. There are 8 bits in a 'byte', which is the usual way for a computer to store data and execute instructions

BCC

Blind Carbon Copy. In e-mails you may wish to send a copy of e-mail to someone, without the original addressee knowing that a copy has been sent. In this case use the BCC option on your mail options when selecting whom to send the e-mail to.

Bookmark

When you use a browser on the Internet, you may wish to keep the links that you have found so that you can find them again easily. In Netscape and some other browsers this is called a bookmark, in Microsoft's Internet Explorer it is called 'favourite'.

bps

This stands for Bits Per Second and is a measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56.6 modem can move 56,600 bits per second.

Browser

This is the software that sits on your PC. It is an application programme provides a way to look at and interact with the Internet. It uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to request the information from web servers throughout the Internet and then shows it to the user.

Byte

This is a collection data, usually 8 bits (the smallest unit of data). It is the means by which computers store data and execute commands.

Bit Map

A bit map is a way of defining a space in which a graphic is displayed, it also defines the colour of each pixel or 'bit 'in the display. A GIF (graphic image file) and JPEG (joint photographic experts group) are examples of graphic image file types containing bit maps. As there is colour information as well as the information regarding the picture in these files they tend to be large.

back to top
 
C

Cable Modem

A cable modem is a device that allows you to connect your PC to a local cable TV line and receive data at approximately 1.5Mbps. This rate of transfer is far greater than the current 28.8Kbps and 56.6 Kbps telephone modems. A cable modem can be added to or integrated with a set top box that turns your TV set into an Internet channel. For PC attachment as well it is necessary to have the line split so that part goes to the TV and part goes to the PC.

Cable TV

Cable TV is a way of providing TV viewing by transmitting the programmes through cable rather than broadcasting from transmitters. It is possible to transmit digital programmes through cable.

Cache

In PC terms a cache is a temporary store of information. In this way the web pages that you browse are stored in the browser's cache directory on your hard disk. In this way if you wish to return to a page you have looked at recently, the browser will retrieve the information from the cache, returning the page more quickly that if the request was sent to the web server again.

CGI

Common Gateway Interface. This is a standard method for web browser software to communicate information to the web server. It is often in the form of a guest book or similar. The web server then sends this information to a CGI script, which is a programme used for processing the function that the user has activated. For example, one CGI script may run a guest book, or server statistics etc.

cgi-bin

This is the common name given to a directory on the web server where CGI scripts are stored.

Client

This is the name given to the user who is requesting something from a server. (Client - Server) The Client is the user's PC, the Server is based on the network that the PC is attached to. As far as the Internet is concerned, the user or Client logs on to the Internet and through their web browser makes requests of the Server, in this case a web server.

Cookie

A cookie is a piece of information sent by a web server to a web browser. The web browser saves this information and sends it back to the web server when the browser makes additional requests to the server. Depending on the type of cookie used, and the browser's settings, the browser may or may not accept the cookie. The cookie may be saved for a long or short term.

Cookies may contain information such as login details, or registration information. When the server receives a request that contains a cookie, the server is able to use that information to speed up the response to the request because a lot of information is stored in the cookie about the user. For example the server may customise what is sent back to the user dependant on details the user has previously entered and which are stored in the cookie. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined period of time, and are usually saved in a temporary file. If the browser software is shut down before the expiry time of the cookie, they may be stored on the hard disk of your PC, in a file often called cookies.

Counter

In the context of the Internet, a counter is programme that counts how many people have visited the website, usually the home page. Many sites include a counter that is visible to the browser, to show how popular the site is. The counter can form part of the statistical information run by a CGI script that logs and analyses requests from browsers.

Cyberspace

Cyberspace is the popular term used to describe the interconnectivity of people (humans) through the medium of computers and telecommunications. William Gibson is credited with inventing the term by using it in his novel Neuromancer in 1984. It is up to you whether or not to believe this.

back to top
 
D

D-channel

In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) the D-channel is the channel that carries control and signalling information. The D stands for Delta. See B-channel.

Data Transfer Rate

The data transfer rate or just data rate, is the amount of digital data that can be moved from one place to another in a given space of time. This relates to the bandwidth that the data is travelling down. In general the greater the bandwidth, the higher the transfer speed.

Dial Up

This relates to telephone connections, in as much as a connection is made when you 'dial up'. In the context of the Internet, access to the Internet is often through 'dial up' as the user accesses the Internet through a modem. Other options include leased lines that are dedicated ISDN connections.

Digital

This is how computers store and use pieces of information. The information is stored electronically as either positive or negative states. So a positive state is depicted as the number 1, and the negative state is depicted as the number 0. Any data stored or transmitted digitally is represented by a string of 0's and 1's. Each of these digits is referred to as a 'bit' and a string of 'bits' of specified number are referred to as a 'byte'.

Domain Name

This is the unique identifier that points to your website. It is the way that the actual address of your website or e-mail address, which is numerical, is portrayed in an alpha format so that it is understood more easily. Each domain name can point to only one address, but a single address may have several domain names pointing at it. So if you have acquired the domain names example.com, example.net and example.co.uk, they can all point at your website that represents your company or name 'Example'.

back to top
 
E

ebusiness

This is the conducting of business over the Internet. This can include not only buying and selling, but also providing customer service, and collaborating with business partners. Many companies are now exploiting the availability, convenience and the vast coverage of the Internet, to increase the presence of their business in the world of commerce. With the introduction of security on many browsers and servers, it has been possible to improve the security of business transactions over the Internet, opening the door for more companies to offer their products directly for sale over the Internet.

ecommerce

ecommerce and ebusiness are often used interchangeably, although ecommerce is usually used to denote the actual buying and selling of goods over the Internet. For retail selling the term etailing is sometimes used.

email

Electronic mail. These are messages usually quite short and with abbreviations, sent by one person to another or to a group of people who have access to computers and a network. The network can be an Intranet within a company only, or via the Internet so available across the world. This can be a faster and cheaper way of communicating than by phone. It is necessary to know the e-mail addresses of the people you are sending the message to in its entirety.

etailing

This word is sometimes used to describe the direct selling over the Internet.

Electronic postmaster

This is usually the capability written into a programme, usually in an e-mail server, to handle the distribution, forwarding, and receiving of e-mail in a network. For example an SMTP server at your ISP (Internet Service Provider) acts as the electronic postmaster by handling your ingoing and outgoing e-mail. It will forward your outgoing messages to their destinations, and collect your ingoing mail so that you can collect them from another server (POP3). The POP3 server holds your messages until you request them to be sent to your workstation.

back to top
 
F

FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions. This is usually a document in the help section online that lists and answers the most common questions on a particular subject. The FAQ's the help section for Internet services, answers the common questions on setting up a website and creating and managing an account with ntl for their Hosting package.

Firewall

This is a combination of hardware and software that separates two areas of network for security purposes. It is possible to have a firewall that will provide a secure environment against malicious attack from anybody on the Internet. It can also be used to control access to and usage of the Internet by internal users.

Flame

At one time this would have meant having a heated and passionate discussion. Nowadays in the context of the Internet it is used to denote any kind of derogatory comment. For example flame e-mail is frowned upon.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. This is a common way of moving files between two Internet sites. The FTP is a special way to login to another Internet site for this purpose.

back to top
 
G

Gateway

It is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. In terms of routing in the context of the Internet, the network consists of gateway nodes and host nodes. The computers that serve content such as web pages are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within the ISP are gateway nodes.

GIF

Graphic Interface Format. This is a common format for image files. It is most often used for files that contain images with large areas of the same colour. Files of the same image stored in GIF format are often smaller than files stored in JPEG format. However GIF format is not as good as JPEG for storing photographic images.

Gigabyte

This is a measure of data. It corresponds to 1000 or 1024 megabytes depending on who is doing the counting. This term is often used when describing the capacity of a hard disk.

back to top
 
H

Hardware

This is the physical aspect of computers, telecommunications, and other information technology devices. The term was first used to differentiate between the physically visible electronic elements of the device and the programme/application that made it do the things you wanted to it to do. This second part is known as the software.

HDD

This is the abbreviation for Hard Disk Drive

Header

In e-mail the header is the part the message that tells you the route that the message took to get to you, the originator, addressee and other recipients etc.

Hit

In the context of the Internet, a hit means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server. For a web browser to display 1 page that contains 4 graphics in it, there will have been 5 individual hits on the server, 1 for the html page, and 1 for each of the graphics.

Homepage

This has two meanings. The first is the name given to the default page your web browser uses when it first starts up. The second is the name given the main page on a website belonging to a company, organisation, or person.

Host

This is the name given to any computer on a network that is the storage point for services that are available to other computers on the network. In some cases it may be common to have one host machine that provides several services, e.g. WWW or USENET.

Hosting

This is the business of housing and serving files for one or more website. Using a hosting service allows anyone who wishes to have an Internet presence with a website, but who does not want to have their own web server the opportunity to go online. Virtual hosting is where the hosting company implies that their services will be transparent and that each website will have its own Domain Name and e-mail addresses.

HTML

HyperText Markup Language. This is the language code used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML has code placed around it that specifies how it will appear to the user. It is also possible to specify that a word or a block of text is linked to another file on the Internet.

HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol. This is the protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet.

Hyperlink

This is the shortened version of Hypertext Link. It is the means by which a word or a phrase can be used to retrieve and display other files over the Internet.

Hypertext

This is the name given to any text that contains links to other text, documents, words or phrases. These can be selected by the user and the selection will cause another document etc to be retrieved and displayed.

back to top
 
I

Interface

This can be used as a noun or as a verb.

As a noun it is either:

A user interface, where a user can communicate with and use a computer or programme(s). Through the use of a set of dials, knobs, buttons, keys, operating system commands, graphical display formats and other devices provided by the computer or programme, the user can make the programme or computer perform the functions required. A graphical user interface provides the user a more pictorial way of interacting with the technology.

Also as a noun, a programming interface is a set of statements, functions, options etc as a way of expressing instructions for, and data provided by, a programme for a programmer to use.

It is also the physical and logical arrangement that allows the attachment of one device to another.

As a verb, it is used to mean communication with another person or an object. In the context of computer hardware it means the physical connection made between two or more pieces of equipment so that they can communicate or work together effectively.

InterNIC

This is the short name given to Network Solution Inc. who are Domain Name providers. They allocate COM, NET and ORG domains. If you wish to register a domain name that ends in COM, NET or ORG, you will need to contact them.

Internet

(upper case I) This is the name given to a vast network of computers all connected together. The Internet was evolved from the ARPANet in the late 60's and early 70's, and is now a huge store of information across the world as well as being used as a means of contacting people and for buying and selling.

Intranet

This is a private network inside a company or organisation, that allows for the transfer of information and contacting people within the network.

IP Number

Internet Protocol Number. Every computer that is on the Internet will have a unique IP number. It is a unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots e.g. 143.123.677.3. Most computers are known to us by their domain name not the IP number as it is easier to remember.

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network. This is a way of moving data across ordinary telephone lines at faster speeds. It requires adapters at both ends i.e. the user and the access provider.

ISP

Internet Service Provider. This is a company or organisation that provides access to the Internet to individuals and other companies. It may also provide other services such as website building and hosting. An ISP has the telecommunication lines and equipment needed to have a point-of-presence on the Internet. Large ISP interconnect with each other through peering arrangements.

back to top
 
J

JANet

Joint Academic Network. This is the main network for the University system of academic and research computers. Operated by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Networking Association) which is a non-profit making organisation under contract from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the UK Higher Education Funding Councils.

Java

Java is a network-orientated language in programming terms that is specifically designed to cater for programmes that are going to be downloaded from the Internet. Invented by Sun Microsystems, it can be downloaded and run apparently without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer. Applets are small Java programmes that can run animation, calculators etc. on web pages.

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG is the most common file format used for photographic images, as opposed to GIF formats for line art and simple logo art.

back to top
 
K

Kbps

This means kilobits per second. It is a measure of the rate of transfer of data over a network

Kilobyte

A measure of data, thousand bytes, or more properly 1024 bytes.

The measurements are usually

8 bits to a byte 1000 bytes to a kilobyte 1000 kilobytes to a megabyte 1000 megabytes to a gigabyte 1000 gigabytes to a terabyte

Megabytes, gigabytes and terabytes are often used to describe the size of a computer hard disk.

back to top
 
L

Layer and layering

It is the organisation of programmes into specific and separate steps, defined by interfaces. The results of each step is transferred to the next layer or programme to complete an overall function.

LAN

Local Area Network. This relates to a computer network that is limited to a small area, perhaps one floor in a building or the building itself.

Leased Line

This refers to a phone line that is leased for exclusive 24 hour, 7 day a week use, or exclusive use only when required depending on the package that you have bought from your telecommunications provider. High speed data connections require a leased line.

Login

This can be used in two ways as a verb or as a noun. As a verb it means to enter a computer system. As a noun it is the account name used to gain access to a computer system.

back to top
 
M

MAE

Metropolitan Area Exchange. MAE is now the service mark for MCI WorldCom. This is a major centre in the United States for switching traffic between ISP's. There are two major MAE's, MAE-East in Washington, DC, and MAE-West in the San Jose, California area. MAE-East interconnects with US ISP's and also ISP's in Europe. MAE-West interconnects ISP's in Silicon Valley. These are considered NAP's (Network Access Points).

A MAE can be viewed as a giant local area network, the only ISP device that can Interconnect with a MAE is a router or a computer host.

Mbps

Millions of bits per second. This is a measure of the rate of transfer of data over a 'cable', either telephone or optical fibre.

Megabit

In data communications a megabit is a million bits.

Megabyte

A million bytes, technically 1000 or 1024 kilobytes

Meta

Meta is a prefix usually meaning 'an underlying definition'. A Meta Tag can be used as a tag that can be put at the top of your web page which will show as a brief description of the page when a user is searching for web pages.

Microsoft Internet Explorer

I.E. is Microsoft's graphical World Wide Web browser that is provided with Windows 95,98 and NT operating systems.

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. This is the standard for attaching non-text files to a standard Internet mail message.

Mirror

To mirror something is to keep an exact copy of it. It may be used to refer to an arrangement where information is written to more than one hard disk simultaneously. In the event that one disk fails, the information is still available on the second.

It may also be used in the context of the Internet where mirror sites are websites or FTP sites that maintain exact copies of information generated elsewhere, to provide more widespread access.

Modem

Modulator/DEModulator. A modem changes (modulates) digital signals from a computer to analogue signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line. The modem also works in the opposite direction and demodulates an incoming analogue signal to a digital signal for the computer to interpret.

back to top
 
N

Netiquette

This is the term used for the Internet etiquette, the unwritten rules for using the Internet.

Netscape

Netscape is the name of one of the two most popular World Wide Web Browsers, and also the name of a company, Netscape Communications. Currently almost all Internet users either use Netscape's browser or Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

Network

Whenever you connect 2 or more computers, you have a network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an Internet.

Node

A node is a connection point, either to redistribute data or the end point for data being distributed over a network.

Nominet

Nominet UK are a Domain Name provider for domain names ending in UK, e.g. .co.uk

If you wish to register a Domain Name that has an ending .co.uk, .org.uk, .ltd.uk, .plc.uk you must apply to Nominet UK.

back to top
 
O

OSP

This is the term sometimes used to describe Online Service Providers, as opposed to ISP's. Companies like AOL, America Online, term themselves OSP's and sometimes have their own web browsers. The service distinctions between OSP's and ISP's are becoming less distinct as ISP's offer more and more services at competitive prices.

Optical fibre

AKA fibre optic. This is the term used to describe the medium and the technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic wire or fibre. Optical fibre carries much more information than conventional copper wire.

back to top
 
P

Packet

A packet is a unit of data that is routed between an addressee and addresser on the Internet or any other packet switching network. When information is sent from one place to another over the Internet it is first divided into chunks or packets by the TCP (Transfer Control Protocol) layer of the TCP/IP. Each packet is labelled. The individual packets may travel different routes over the Internet, but when they arrive at their destination they are reassembled into the original information.

Packet Switching

This is the name given to the method of moving information/data around the Internet. All the data coming out of a machine is broken into chunks or packets, each packet is labelled with the addressee and the addresser. This means that chunks of data from many different sources can mingle on the same lines, be sorted and distributed over different routes, and still reach the correct destinations. This means that many people can use the same lines at the same time.

Page

In the context of the World Wide Web, a page is a file that is written in HTML (HyperText Markup Language). If you think of a website as a book, then there will be many pages that make up that book. Each page is delivered to you to view as you request it by using the buttons or links contained in each page. The first page you usually see and request is the home page. Each page is an individual HTML file with its own URL or web address. With frames, multiple pages can be downloaded to the browser and presented on designated sections of the screen at the same time.

Password

This is a code used with a login to gain access to a locked system. Some systems set minimum and maximum combinations of letters and numbers.

Path

In the context of the World Wide Web a path is defined in the URL or web address as the means to find other computers and pieces of information stored on them. In a network the path is the route between two points or nodes.

Permission marketing

This is an approach to marketing and selling goods and services in which a prospect agrees in advance to be sent marketing information. A good example of this is Opt-in e-mail, where Internet users sign up to be sent information about goods and services that they are interested in.

Ping

Packet Internet. To Ping an Internet address is to verify that the address exists and can accept requests. Ping is used to test that a host computer you are trying to reach is actually operating.

Plug-in

This is a piece of software usually quite small that adds features to a larger piece of software. Plug-ins may provide animation features to an existing programme for example.

POP

Point of Presence or Post Office Protocol. There are two meaning for this. The first Point of Presence, usually means a location where a network can be connected to. This is often with dial up phones. So when an ISP says that it has a POP in Cardiff, it means that it has a local number in Cardiff and/or a place where leased lines can connect to the ISP's network.

The second meaning is Post Office Protocol. This refers to the way that e-mail software collects its mail from a mail server. When you obtain an e-mail account you must also have a POP account that stores your e-mail until your e-mail programme collects it. The Current version is POP3.

Port

In the context of the Internet, a Port often refers to a number that is part of the URL, appearing after a colon in the address after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. For example web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in the URL when accessing the server. The URL could look like this www://abcd.efg.co:81

Portal

A portal may either be used to describe a website that is the first thing that a user sees when using the web, or as a gateway or 'point of entry' to encourage the user to visit a particular site.

Proxy Server

In an organisation or company that uses the Internet, a proxy server is a server that acts as the intermediary between a workstation user and the Internet. This means that the enterprise can ensure security, administrative control and caching service. A proxy server is associated with or part of a gateway server that separates the internal network from the Internet and a firewall server that protects the enterprise network from intrusion.

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network. This is the most well known system by which ordinary telephones are connected to exchanges.

back to top
 
Q

Quicktime

Quicktime is a multimedia development storage and playback technology package from Apple. It combines sound, text, animation, and video in a single file. Quicktime files can be recognised by their file extensions: qt, mov, and moov.

back to top
 
R

Router

A router is a computer or software package, which is dedicated to handling the connection between 2 or more networks. A router will spend all its time looking at the destination addresses of the packets passing through them. Having checked the destination addresses, the router will decide which route to send each packet on. A router is located at any juncture of networks or gateway, including each Internet Point-of-Presence. A router is often included as part of a network switch.

RSA

This is an Internet encryption and authentication system. It is included as part of the web browsers from Microsoft, and Netscape. It is also part of Lotus Notes, Intuits Quicken and many other products

back to top
 
S

Scalability

This is the ability of an application or product to continue to function as it is changed in size or volume. Typically the rescaling is to make the application or product larger. It also means the ability to take full advantage of the rescaling in terms of performance.

Script

In computer terms a script is a programme or a sequence of instructions that is carried out by another programme.

Security Certificate

This is the information that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection for monetary transactions over the Internet.

Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs to, who it was issued by , a unique identifier, valid dates, and an encrypted section for verifying the contents of the certificate.

Server

This is a computer or a software package, which is capable of providing a specific service to client software on other computers. The term can be used to refer to a particular piece of software or to the machine it is running on. For example you may have heard people saying, "Our mail server is down today, our e-mail cannot get out". A single computer running as a server may have several different server packages on it allowing it to provide different services to clients on a network.

Service Level Agreement

This is the agreement between the user and the provider of a service that specifies what services the provider will supply. This SLA is usually provided in measurable terms.

Service Space Provider

This is a company or organisation that provides storage space on a server for web pages. In a virtual web server the company or organisation server allows a transparent system where the web pages stored appear to the user as a separate web server.

SET

Secure Electronic Transaction. This is a system for enabling secure financial transactions on the Internet. Supported initially by MasterCard and Visa as the financial institutions, and Microsoft, Netscape and others as the Internet providers.

SET makes use of Netscape's Secure Sockets Layer, and Microsoft's Secure Transaction Technology to conduct the transaction. The transaction is conducted and verified using a combination of digital certificates and digital signatures (unique identifiers) between the purchaser, a vendor, and the purchaser's bank in a way that allows privacy and confidentiality.

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This is the main protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP is a set of rules that decide how a programme sending e-mail and a programme receiving e-mail should interact.

Spam or Spamming

This is the word commonly used to describe an attempt to use a networked communications facility (e-mail) in an inappropriate manner. Using the facility as a broadcast medium and sending the same message to a large number of people who have not requested the communication is called spamming.

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer. This is a programme layer created by Netscape to manage the security of message transmissions in a network. Netscape's SSL uses public and private key encryption systems from RSA, which also includes the use of a digital certificate.

back to top
 
T

Terminal Server

This is a computer that fills a specific service where it has multiple modems on one side and a connection to a LAN or host on the other. In this way the Terminal Server answers all the calls over the modems and passes the connections on to the appropriate node.

back to top
 
U

Uploading

The term given to transferring files from one computer system to another, usually a larger system. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the Internet facility for uploading and downloading files.

URL

Uniform Resource Locator. This is the usual means of specifying the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web. The URL will contain the name of the protocol required to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a hierarchical description of a file location on the computer.

A URL may be written like this

http://www.ntl.com/in-business/default.asp

http is the HyperText Transfer Protocol

www .ntl.com is the domain name of the specific computer requested

The specific file requested is /in-business

The default page is /default.asp

back to top
 
V

Viral Marketing

This rather odd name is the term given to the method of marketing by persuading websites or users to pass on a marketing message to other sites or users. Other terms used to mean the same are: avalanche marketing, buzz marketing, and cascade marketing.

Virtual Hosting

This is where a Hosting supplier provides transparent web space on a web server, so that the virtual web server appears to have its own presence.

Virtual Web Server

Generally in this context, virtual means something appearing to have a physical presence when in fact it doesn't. Virtual Web Server means the appearance of a web server, whereas in fact the web server is within a physical web server.

back to top
 
W

Webmaster

A webmaster is a person who has 1 of 2 roles or occasionally both. They may create and manage the content, words and graphics, and the organisation of a website. They may also (or it may be done by someone else) manage the computer server and technical programming aspects of a website.

Web Server

A web server is a programme that serves the files that form web pages to the web users. To do this it uses the client/server model and the World Wide Web's HyperText Transfer Protocol.

Website

A website is a collection of related files that includes a front file usually called a home page. A Company, individual or organisation tells you how to find and access their website by giving you the address of their home page. The other pages in the website can be accessed from the home page. A website is sometimes confused with a web server. Whereas some websites may be so large as to need 1 or more web servers to manage it, many more websites will reside in a web space providers web server with other websites.

World Wide Web

World Wide Web or www, is all the users of the Internet that are using the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It has also been likened to an embodiment of human knowledge, a universe of network accessible information.

back to top
 
X

back to top
 
Y

Yahoo!

Yahoo! is a directory of world wide websites organised in a hierarchical list of topic categories.

Year 2K

Year 2K or Y2K is the name given to the possible problems that may be encountered as the year clocks click over to 2000. This is because some programmes may still depend on a date configuration involving only the last 2 digits of the year.. The problem will arise in such programmes when the date rolls over from '99' to '00'. The programme logic may expect the date to get large not smaller and '00' looks smaller than'99'. Also the programme may not be able to cope with the possibility in logic terms that the date may mean 1900.

back to top
 
Z

Zip

This has two meanings 1. The term given to define a physical address by alpha and/or numeric combinations. The term Zip is commonly used in America. It is designed to make mail sorting and delivery more efficient. 2. The term given to compressing a large file using a Windows programme called WinZip. The zipped file may then be small enough to be transported by e-mail or on floppy disk whereas before it was too large. When the file reaches its destination it can be 'un-zipped' to allow it to be read by the recipient.

back to top

account number

password
buy a book relating to this subject from Amazon.co.uk
 |